Future Pakistani Test captain, Misbah-ul-Haq with trophy at school, 1987.
Future US President, Barak Obama with a Pakistani friend in Karachi in 1982
Moonwalkers in Karachi, 1973: How many of you know or remember that the entire crew of NASA’s Apollo 17 flight to the moon visited Pakistan? In July 1973, astronauts of the United State’s last mission to the moon arrived in Karachi.
mission participants being interviewed on 18th June 1968 in a PTV Programme.
American tourists enjoying a ride on a tanga in Rawalpindi in 1975.
Legendary boxer Muhammad Ali visited Kinnaird College, Lahore in 1988
This region’s tradition of pottery dates back hundreds of centuries and still thrives in many parts of the city today. The Kumhar Road which literally means the potter’s road is home to earthenware shops, which have existed here since before the British Raj. Shops along this two kilometre road, which connects Gawalmandi with Jinnah Road, sell earthenware ovens, stoves, pots, utensils and decorative items. Even traditional toys made out of clay are sold here.
[img=1113x1625]http://i.dawn.com/primary/2015/07/55b49e2d1a067.jpg?r=542200951[/img] Glazed clay pots with a wide mouth known as Handi, were traditionally used for cooking. These pots lend their name to a popular meat dish called Handi, cooked and served in these pots. Before the partition of India, this bazaar housed almost three dozen potters’ shops and workshops. Today, the number of these shops has been reduced to around 10, with three selling clay utensils and seven shops which sell earthenware ovens or tandoor. Potters set-up their workshops in places where water is plenty and it was the proximity of this area to the Leh Nullah, which attracted the potters. Traditional clay pots called Matkas are used all over India and Pakistan to store water and keep it cool. “In the past, a potter would set up his workshop on the banks of a stream or river and at the time when this bazaar was established, Leh Nullah was a stream of clean water. You can still see the Dhobi Ghat on the banks of the nullah, where dhobis would use the water from the stream for their laundry,” said Hussain Butt, the owner of a shop on Kumhar Road. Mr Butt explained that most potters who had shops in this area, before the partition of India, were Hindu and left for India. [img=1113x1642]http://i.dawn.com/primary/2015/07/55b49e2eaa2de.jpg?r=2041947331[/img] Earthenware dishes piled at the back of a shop on Kumhar Road. “The Hindu potters would make earthenware idols and some big and small temples built by them in this area, still exist,” he said. Today, he said, most shops no longer have workshops attached and goods for stock are brought from Gujrat, Gujranwala, Attock and other cities. [img=1113x1943]http://i.dawn.com/primary/2015/07/55b49e350ed45.jpg?r=1709152710[/img] A potter has added a touch of paint to lend colour to this clay pitcher. “Local potters now only make flower pots and ovens,” he said. The workshops , he said, were shifted because kilns for firing the clay can no longer exist in cities. Among the items lining the racks in his shop are clay water coolers, complete with a plastic nozzle. “This is a fairly new invention to replace clay pots used in most houses to keep water clean and cool. Using clay utensils for water storage is a healthier option than plastic bottles,” he said. [img=1113x2764]http://i.dawn.com/primary/2015/07/55b49e2bad086.jpg?r=1007089444[/img] The perforated surface of this electric lamp is decorative and lets out light. [img=1113x1293]http://i.dawn.com/primary/2015/07/55b49f20eef6e.jpg?r=2004076313[/img] An unbaked clay teapot used mainly for decoration.
Some 25 kilometres west of Gujar Khan and over the Sui Cheemian perennial river sits the ancient Sangni Fort. This fort, used for keeping prisoners, is believed to have been built by the Mughals and later occupied by the Dogras of Kashmir and the Sikhs.
There are many such forts and fortresses in the Potohar region, which include the Rohtas, Attock, Pharwala, Rawat, Giri. However, the Sangni Fort, perched on a picturesque location overlooking two rivulets, is most spectacular. Distant view of the Sangni Fort. It is perched on a hill. The fort and spring. Another view. It is built over a hill from where one has a panoramic view of several villages, particularly the Sui Cheemian, Dhok Las, etc. The Dhole Las Village is noted for a 17th century necropolis. These graves are constructed of Kanjur stone and possibly belong to some of the soldiers of the Mughal period who were stationed at the fort. Similar graves can also be seen in the Takkal Village with dilapidated funerary enclosure, which possibly belongs to a Mughal administrator of Sangni and neighbouring villages. The main entrance gate of the fort opens to the east from where one can see as far as the Takkal Village, steps lead to the inside of the fort. The fort has four bastions of almost equal diameter with stairways reaching the top of the bastions which were used for guarding the fort and its surrounding area. The dome of the shrine is visible over the fort walls. A closer view of bastions of the fort. The main gate of the fort. Remains of funerary enclosure at Takkal Village. Located inside the fort is a shrine of Abdul Hakeem. He is believed to have come from Arabia via Iran to preach in the area. According to Rasheed of Dhoke Las, Abdul Hakeem came to Sangni during the Dogra rule. At that time, this area was under the jurisdiction of Azad Jammu Kashmir. When Abdul Hakeem came to Sangni to preach, he was not allowed in by Dogra soldiers. He was forced to leave the area and stay at the Chakrali Village, where many of the people became his disciples. He made Chakrali his permanent seat of preaching, from where his name spread to villages all over the Potohar region, until he died in Chakrali and was buried there. According to Raja Aslam of Sui Cheemian, 50 years after the death of Abdul Hakeem, some people had seen the saint in their dreams, in which he ordered his disciples to take his mortal remains to the Sangni Fort. Accordingly, his mortal remains were taken for reburial to Sangni Sharif, where, today, his mausoleum stands at the centre of the fort. Soon, Sangni became to be known as Sangni Sharif. A view of Sangni Fort from the west. A view of Abdul Hakeem's shrine. A fabulous specimen of Potohar architecture, the tomb is said to have been built by his disciples. It has three arched entrances from all directions. The tomb is constructed of marble. The hemispherical dome rests on the square building, the corners of which are decorated with four minarets. The drum on which the dome rests is adorned with glazed titles. Close to the shrine is situated a mosque, which was also built by disciples of Abdul Hakeem. The walls of the corridor are decorated with modern ceramics. The interior of the tomb is decorated with glasswork. The glazed tiles and glasswork are essential elements of the modern tomb architecture in Potohar. Almost in every village and town where there are shrines, one is bound to find these two forms of decoration on them. Modern ceramics on the wall of shrine. The grave of Abdul Hakeem. The shrine. The shrine of Abdul Hakeem attracts hundreds of people every Thursday and Friday. Newly married couples invariably visit the shrine to get the blessings of the saint. People also slaughter animals at the shrine in the hope of getting their wishes fulfilled and as a form of thanksgiving to the saint. The devotees also take a bath in the spring which is situated west of the fort and is believed to have been a miracle of the saint. Local people believe that there was no spring in Sangni until water came out from the earth where Abdul Hakeem was buried at the Sangni Fort. The spring never dries. Of the people taking a bath in it, some have illnesses that they hope the water will rid them of; water therapy is still a common practice at various shrines across Potohar. Like the shrine, the fortress has also been maintained by the devotees of Abdul Hakeem.
Posted by: Fani - 07-27-2015, 12:59 PM - Forum: Urdu Adab
- No Replies
ہم اپنے اندر قید کیوں رہ جاتے ہیں۔ کیا ہم کسی کے سامنے نہیں آنا چاہتے یا یہ چاہتے ہیں کہ کوئی ہمیں کھوج لے۔ یہ ہماری بےچاری سی ذات پر اتنے سارے پردے کیوں لٹکتے رہتے ہیں۔ نہ ہم لوگوں کو دیکھ پائیں اور نہ لوگ ہمیں۔ اپنی ذات میں کھلنے والی ساری کھڑکیاں، سارے روزن اتنی سختی سے کیوں بند کر دیتے ہیں۔ کیا ہم چھپ جانا چاہتے ہیں یا منتظر رہتے ہیں کہ کوئی ہاتھ اٹھے اور دستک دے مگر ہم دستک کے منتظر کیوں رہتے ہیں۔ خود بڑھ کر کھڑکی کیوں نہیں کھول دیتے۔ کیا ہم آنے والے کو یہ خوشی، یہ اعتبار نہیں دینا چاہتے کہ ’’ آؤ! ہم تمھارے منتظر ہیں۔‘‘
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Historical, Cultural, Agricultural and Education Background
District Mandi Bahauddin takes its name from the town headquarters. In 1506 A. D. a Gondal Jat Chief Bahauddin established a settlement namely Pindi Bahauddin, after his migration from Pindi Shah Jahanian to this area.
During British era in Sub-Continent
In the British rule in 1916 Pindi bahauddin Railway station was setup. It was a time when the British were Establishing and introducing modern and essential public use Equipments in their best Interest. Above mentioned Railway System was introduced and laid down to defend their Empire from the North. So it was called North Western Railway (NWR). After the first world war the British gave and introduced new settlements in Sub-continent. This Region called "Gondal Bar" some of its land lying Barren was reconstructed and a great Irrigation plan was surveyed and dug out by manual work. Main route of the canal Lower Jhelum was dug. Water was released in 1902 in its main route.
Chak Bandi was made by Sir Malcum Heley and approximately 51 Chaks were settled and notified. In these 51 Chaks , the land was awarded to the people who worked for British Empire. The town grew up in early 20th century near the ancient village [Chak No. 51], where Sikh, Hindu and Muslim businessmen and land owners came to settle. The twon was named Mandi Bahauddin after establishment of grain market in the area. Chak 51 became the center of this newly established town. The map of this Chak was made by John Alam. A famous grain market was setup in this Chak. After this the Chak No. 51 was called Mandi-Bahauddin. In 1920 this name was notified. In 1924 Pindi-Bahauddin Railway station was notified the above mentioned name. In 1937 when Mandi-Bahauddin was town, it was given the status of a town committee. In 1941 it was given the status of a Muncipal Committee. In the Master plan of reconstructing this town, in 1923 all the streets and roads were laid straight and wide. In 1946 nine gates and the wall surrounding this town was completed due to reites.
After the partition when the Sikhs and the Hindus have migrated to India, bulk of muslim population migrated and settled here. In 1960 this city was given the status of Sub-Division. In 1963, the Rasul Barrage and Rasul-Qadirabad link canal project under Indus Basin irrigation project started. The Project was managed by WAPDA, and a large colony for government employees and foreign contractors was constructed a few kilometers from Mandi Bahauddin. This projected was completed in 1968 by Engineer Riazur Rahman Shariff as the Project Director. This project brought lime light to Mandi Bahauddin and helped the city grow commercially. In 1993 by its own name Mian Manzoor Ahmed Vato Chief minister Punjab announced and notified this city as a District. H.Q.
The district forms central portion of the Chaj Doab lying between Jhelum and Chenab rivers.
Jatts consisting of sub-castes Gondal, Warraich, Tarar, Ranjha and Sahi dominate Mandi Bahauddin, consisting of three tehsils Mandi Bahauddin, Phalia and Malikwal.
However, Gujjars and Mohajirs are also prominent in local politics. Agriculture is the major profession in the district. Formerly a tehsil of Gujrat district, Mandi Bahauddin district consists of two national and five provincial assembly seats
The total area of Mandi Bahauddin is 2,673 sq kilometres. The total number of male voters in Mandi Bahauddin is 370,528 and female voters 278,521. The annual population growth rate of the district is 1.87 per cent and the urban ratio is 15.2 per cent. Around 99.1 per cent of the total population of Mandi Bahauddin are Muslims, 0.6 per cent Christians and 0.2 per cent Ahmadis.
The main languages of the district are: Punjabi 97 per cent; Urdu 2.5 per cent; Pushto 0.5 per cent; Seraiki 0.5 per cen. Main occupations of the district include agriculture workers 40.7 per cent; elementary occupations 40 per cent; service workers 6.5 per cent, crafts and related trade 4.2 per cent; professionals 3.1 per cent and machine operators 2.4 per cent.
More than 150 lakh populated city has its own great importance. In the Western side of Mandi-Bahauddin at the place of Khiwa , the famous and historical war "Battle of the Hydaspes River" between Raja Porus and Alexander The great , a Greece Invader have been fought.
A painting by Charles Le Brun depicting Alexander and Porus during the Battle of the Hydaspes
Alexander's crossing of the Hydaspes river, courtesy of The Department of History, United States Military Academy
The Battle of Hydaspes River was a battle fought by Alexander the Great in 326 BC against the Indian king Porus on the Hydaspes River (now the Jhelum) in Punjab. The kingdom of king Porus was situated in that part of ancient India which has become modern day Pakistan. The battle was the last major war fought by Alexander.
At the first day of this war, Harry Roy the son of Raja Porus was killed at 11 o-clock. At the same day, the horse (Bucephalus) of Alexander, The great, was dead. After the death of his son, Raja Porus (initially stationed at Nazampur) came with Elephants and fought against Alexander the great. This war was on the Southern Bank of the River Jhelum. As a result of this battle, Alexander founded two cities, Nicaea (Victory) at the site of modern day Jalapur and Bucephala at the site (possibly) of Bhera in Pakistan.Bucephalus was the name of the horse that Alexander rode on, having died either during battle or right afterwards of weariness and old age.Wazir Abad Cuttlery industry has its own pride to sharpen and prepare the swords of this great Invader.
At a few distance from here, second Sikh war in 1849 in the reigeon of Lord Guff, the British and the Khalsa Sikh Army fought at the place of Chillianwala.
A grave yard at Rakh Minar near Chillianwala has its own Ancient Mamorandom where many British Army soldiers and officers have been buried and lie there.
Tehsil headquarters towns of Phalia and Malikwal are at the distance of 22.5 and 28.5 kilometers from Mandi Bahauddin, respectively. The shape of the district is like a parallelogram. It is bounded on the north by river Jhelum (which separates it from Jehlam district); on the west by Sargodha district; on the south by river Chenab (which separates it from the Gujranwala and Hafizabad districts); and on the east by Gujrat district. Total area of the district is 2,673 square kilometers. The district comprises of three tehsils, namely, Mandi Bahauddin, Phalia and Malikwal.
Mandi Bahaud Din: Out of the way city by shirazi
Originally Mandi Bahauddin was a village called as Chak number 51. It started expanding after the completion of Rasul Hydroelectric Power Station on Upper Jhelum Canal in 1901. Today, Mandi Bahauddin is an over crowded market town famous for its agricultural markets (Grain Market, Vegetable Market and Livestock Market) and local industry of making colourful bed legs.
The name Mandi Bahauddin originates from two sources: Mandi (market) was prefixed because it was a flourishing grain market and Bahauddin was borrowed from nearby old village Pindi Bahauddin, which has now become part of the town. After the partition, thousands of refugees from India rehabilitated on the evacuee property of Sikh and Hindu landlords. Lately, after the construction of Rasul Barrage, people from the belt along southern edge of Salt Range up to Pind Dadan Khan and other areas across the River Jhelum came settling in the town. Due to migrations and increase in business activities, the town has expanded in all directions. The result is that more than half of the population is living outside municipal limits without any civic amenities. More unplanned localities and kachi abadies are coming up everyday. The tendency to move from rural areas to urban centres is on the increase.
People from adjoining villages come to exchange their agricultural products like grain, chickens and Ghee with matchboxes and other commodity items and see the â€˜bright lightsâ€™ in this dusty town. Donkey carts to heavy vehicles are plying indiscriminately on any road they feel like. The town roads have bumps, wobbles and unauthorized speed breakers (sleeping policemen). The right of way has been shrunk due to encroachments and fast growing traffic. Most cross-junctions like Hospital Chowk, Gurha Chowk, Sut Sire Chowk, College Chowk and two railway crossings are always busy and there are no traffic signals.
The sugar mills constructed â€˜farm to millâ€™ road that can be used as a bypass for the traffic not concerned with the city. But it is not being utilized because there are no arrangements to divert the heavy traffic on to the 20 feet wide metallic road. Mixture of slow and fast moving traffic, lack of footpaths, parking facilities, presence of bus and wagon terminals and many tonga stands has aggravated the situation in this agricultural market town. It is located away from Grand Trunk road but well linked with Pind Dadan Khan, Jhelum, Kharian, Lalamusa, Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sargodha with railways and good road network.
The small town having gridiron pattern (all roads and streets meeting at right angle) has developed haphazardly into an overcrowded city. Rehries and temporary shops have intruded all the main bazaars. The rehriwallas have a strong union. They thwart any effort by municipal authorities or district administration to remove the encroachments. The result is that what to talk of vehicles even the pedestrians cannot pass through the bazaars. Dual carriage way was introduced from Sadar Darwaza - gateway built in 1930 - to municipal committee office but the encroachers have also occupied this bifurcation.
The right of way on roads going out of the town has also been reduced due to unchecked encroachments and linear development along the roads. Number of shopping centres has come up in the residential areas. Beside sugar mills, local shaped industrial concerns are spread in and brick kilns around the town. Bed legs and colourful furniture are famous products of the town. Commercial and industrial activities in the residential areas have put a great pressure on the demand of already deficient houses.
Grain Market is located in the centre of the town. Goodsâ€™ Forwarding Agencies and lack of amenities have made miserable the lives of merchants and customers of the Market. Large number of goodsâ€™ trucks is always standing in the 4.3 acres of market area, which adversely affect the business. The surrounding area of townâ€™s landmark and highest building, majestic Jamia Mosque built by the corner of Grain Market is also noisy and bustling with commercial activities of â€˜Loharâ€™ bazaar.
Even worst is the condition of Vegetable Market. There was time when much of what is today Sabzi Mandi was tranquil and pollution free market consisting of few shops. People could go to the market and buy some of the freshest fruit, vegetables and some of the choicest of spices, nuts, meat and chicken. But now it is very difficult to move in and out of this largest perishableâ€™s market in the area because there is no regular sweeping or lifting of garbage and all the free space has been occupied by vendors who buy any one item in the morning and sit on ground to sell inside and around Sabzi Mandi.
Well chalking is another problem of the town. Political, religious, commercial slogans and different advertisements can be seen all over the town. Political slogans respecting one candidate who contested last elections, every time from a different platform can still be found written on the walls of the town.
Besides going to nearby Rasul Barrage for eating fish Kabab, there are no recreational or cultural facilities and no healthy activities Mandi Bahauddin that was made district headquarters in 1993. This has far eaching effects on the youth of the town. They are seen playing cards on roadsides or snooker in corners of every street. Large numbers of video shops have come up and are doing good business. Video shops rent TV, VCR and as much as five films at a time even in the period when multi channel satellite has become a household item. There are two old cinema houses with 803 seating capacity. Degree colleges (one for boys and one for girls) are doing good jobs but given the resources of the municipal educational institutions, they are not enough for the youth of the area.
A Lalamusa-Sargodha-Khanewal railway is a profitable rout. At present only one Peshawar-Karachi train - Chenab Express - runs on this route. It could be useful to introduce at least one more Peshawar-Karachi express train for passengers, agricultural products produced in the area and a few of the minerals from Salt Range. This track is linked with Khewara Salt mines as well. Moreover, this track is strategically important in case of any threat to Peshawar-Lahore-Karachi main railway track. In that case, Lalamusa-Sargodha-Khanewal rail route could take all the rail traffic.
The â€œMandi Bahauddin Development Plan 1986-2012â€³ has not even come on the tables of people responsible for is execution. But a possible nice start for the town may be to declare at least two bazaars (Sadar Bazaar and Committee Bazaar) totally pedestrian, vehicular traffic and animal transport contained out. Any body listening please!